Seroprevalence of Rubella IgG and IgM Antibodies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Richard Yomi Akele
Baget Nerat Pam
Bernard Oluwapelumi Oluboyo
Seyi Samson Enitan
Janet Funmilayo Akinseye
Funmilayo Ajoke Adewumi

Abstract

Aim: Though Rubella is vaccine-preventable and enlisted on the expanded program on immunization (EPI) list, vaccination and testing are not routinely practiced in Ido-Ekiti. There is also paucity of epidemiological data on the prevalence of rubella infection at Ido-Ekiti, hence the study aimed at carrying out a serosurvey to generate epidemiological data for this location.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between October 2018 and January 2019 at the Antenatal Clinic of Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FETHI), Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Methodology: One hundred and eighty four consenting pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at FETHI were enrolled. Structured questionnaire was administered to collect Sociodemographic data and sera samples were also collected to determine seroprevalence of rubella IgG and IgM antibodies using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Prevalence rate was calculated and chi square value was determined.

Results: Of the 184 sera samples analyzed 176 (95.7%) and 22 (12%) were seropositive for rubella IgG and IgM respectively. Twenty (11%) of those seropositive for IgM were also positive for IgG and only 2(1%) were positive only for IgM. Prevalence rate for IgG was highest among 26-30years (98.3%) and 31-35years (18.8%) for IgM. Age had no-significant effect (p> 0.05) on seroprevalence distribution. In like manner, level of formal education, knowledge of the virus, and occupation had no significant effect (p> 0.05) on prevalence of the virus. However parity significantly (p< 0.05) influenced the pattern of serostatus for both IgG and IgM.

Conclusion: The high prevalence and similar distribution pattern irrespective of sociodemographic features of rubella virus in this study area suggests its endermicity and continuous transmission in the area. This emphasizes the need to implement routine immunization of children and susceptible women of child bearing age against rubella virus.

Keywords:
Seroprevalence, rubella IgG and IgM, pregnancy, congenital rubella syndrome, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

Article Details

How to Cite
Akele, R. Y., Pam, B. N., Oluboyo, B. O., Enitan, S. S., Akinseye, J. F., & Adewumi, F. A. (2020). Seroprevalence of Rubella IgG and IgM Antibodies among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Immunology, 4(1), 27-35. Retrieved from https://www.journalaji.com/index.php/AJI/article/view/30126
Section
Original Research Article

References

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Rubella: Complications, Diseases and Conditions. Healthline. 2015;25:45-50.

Willey J, Sherwood L, Woolverton C. Human diseases caused by viruses and prions. In: Prescott’s Microbiology, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 2011;905-906.

CDC. Rubella (German measles, three-day measles); 2011.
Accessed July 13 2017
Available:http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/immunizationinfographic/stop-rubella.htm

Banatvala JE, Brown DW. Rubella. lancent. 2015;363(9415):1127–1137.

Olajide OM, Aminu M, Randawa AJ, Adejo DS. Seroprevalence of rubella-specific IgM and IgG antibodies among pregnant women seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Int J Women's health. 2015;7:75–83.

Mirambo MM, Majigo M, Aboud S, Gross U, Mshana SE. Serological makers of rubella infection in Africa in the pre vaccination era: A systematic review. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8(1):716-726.

WHO. Rubella vaccine. WHO Position Paper. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2013;29(86):301–316.
Available:http://www.who.int/wer/2011/wer8629.pdf

Kwofie TB, Ayensu F, Mutocheluh M, Narkwa P, Nguah SB, Turpin CA, Owusu M. Seroprevalence of Rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus among pregnant women at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Journal of Public Health in Developing Countries. 2015;1(2):56-63.

Dimech W, Grangeot-Keros L, Vauloup-Fellous C. Standardization of assays that detect anti-rubella virus Igg antibodies. Clin MicrobiolRev. 2016;29(1):163–174.
DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00045-15

Onyenekwe CC, Kehinde-Agbeyangi TA, Ofor US, Arinola OG. Prevalence of Rubella-IgG antibody in women of childbearing age in Lagos, Nigeria. West African Journal of Medicine. 2000;19(1): 23–26.

Amina MD, Oladapo S, Habib S, Adebola O, Bimbo K, Daniel A, et al. Prevalence of rubella IgG antibodies among pregnant women in Zaria, Nigeria. Int Health. 2010; 2(2):156-159.

Onyeukwu EU, Ogbonnaya O, Oseni OM, Anyigor E, Elom O, Ethel N. Seroprevalence survey of Rubella IgG antibodies among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. UJMR. 2018;3(2): 50-55.

Getahun M, Beyene B, Gallagher K, Ademe A, Teshome B, Tefera M, et al. Epidemiology of rubella virus cases in the pre-vaccination era of Ethiopia, 2009–2015. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:1168.
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3841-z

Tamirat B, Hussen S, Shimelis T. Rubella virus infection and associated factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinics of public hospitals in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2017;7: e016824.
DOI: 10.1136/ bmjopen-2017-016824

WHO. Vaccine-preventable diseases: Monitoring system. 2017 global summary; 2017.
[Accessed 26 Mar 2019]

Available:http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/

CDC. Epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. Chapter 20, rubella.Pink book. 13th ed; 2015.

Chukwuedo AA, Zirawaga SS, Banda JM, Chukwu CO, Olabode AO. Sero-prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Adamawa and Kaduna states of Nigeria. Int J Nat Appl Sci. 2010;6(1):131-134.

World Health Organization. global vaccine action plan. Priority country reports on progress towards GVAP-RVAP goals. Annex to the GVAP secretariat annual report. Geneva, Switzerland; 2016.
Available:http://www.who.int/immunization/global_vaccine_action_plan/web_regional_2017.pdf?ua+1

Adewumi OM, olayinka OA, Olusola BA, Faleye TO, Sule WF, Adesina O. Epidemiological evaluation of Rubella virus infection among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Immunoassay Immuno-chemistry. 2015;36(6):613-621.
DOI:10.1080/15321819.2015.1027404.pmid:25774539

Adebayo WO, Jegede AO. The environ-mental effect of flooding transportation land use in Benin City Nigeria. African Research Review, 2010;4(1):390-400.

Oluboyo OB, Musa HS, Akinseye JF, Akele RY, Oluboyo AO, Adewumi FA. Risky sexual behaviors and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies among students in a Tertiary Institution. Online Journal of Health Allied Sciences. 2019; 18(3):3-8.

Mohammed DA, Shittu O, Sadauki H, Olayinka A, Kolawole B, Adejo D. Prevalence of rubella IgG antibodies among pregnant women in Zaria, Nigeria. Int Health. 2016;2(2):156-159.

Gubio AB, Mamman AI, Abdul M, Olayinka AT. The risk factors of exposure to rubella among pregnant women in Zaria. Pan Africa Medical Journal. 2019;32(1):4.

DOI:10.11604/pamj.21/01/2019.ARTVOL.ARTISSUE.13335

Kolawole O, Anjorin E, Adokanle D, Kolawole FC, Durowade KA. Serology of rubella IgG antibody in pregnant women in Osogbo, Nigeria. Int J Prev Med. 2014; 5(3):287–292.

Hamdan HZ, Abdelbagi IE, Nasser NM, Adam I. Seroprevalence of cytomegalo-virus and rubella among pregnant women in western Sudan. Virology Journal. 2011; 11(8):217-225

DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-217

Oyinloye SO, Amama CA, Daniel R, Ajayi BB, Lawan MA. Seroprevalence survey of rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 2014;15:151–157.

Mengouo NM, Ndze VN, Baonga F, Kobela N, Wiysonge CS. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008–2014 BMJ Open. 2017;7(4):e012959.

DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012959

Junaid SA, Akpan KJ, Olabode AO. Sero-survey of rubella IgM antibodies among children in Jos, Nigeria. Virology Journal. 2011;19(8):244-249.
DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-244

Mitiku K, Bedada T, Masresha B, Kegne W, Nafo-Traore F, Tesfaye N, et al. The epidemiology of rubella disease in Ethiopia: Data from the measles case-based surveillance system. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2011;204(Suppl 1): S239–S242.
DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir120

Mwambe B, Mirambo M, Mshana S, Massinde AN, Kidenya BR, Michael D, et al. Seropositivity rate of rubella and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Mwanza, Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014;14:95-102.

Ogbonnaya EC, Chinedum EK, John A, Esther A. Survey of the seroprevalence of IgM antibodies in pregnant women infected with rubella virus. J Biotechnol Pharm Res. 2012;3:10–14.

Onakewhor JU, Chiwuzie J. Seropre-valence survey of rubella infection in pregnancy at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2011; 14(2):140–145
DOI: 10.4103/1119-3077.84002

Fokunang CN, Chia J, Ndumbe P, Mbu P, Atashili J. Clinical studies on seroprevalence of rubella virus in pregnant women of Cameroon regions Afr J Clin Exp Microbiol. 2010;11(2):79- 94.