Main Article Content
Blood transfusion is an important component of patients management, as it saves millions of life each year, but it also serves as a vehicle for transmission of blood-pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and syphilis as a result World Health Organization has recommended that all blood samples should be screened for transfusion transmissible infections prior to transfusion. Therefore this was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and socio-demographic distribution of Hepatitis C virus and Syphilis among blood donors in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano. This is a cross sectional study of blood donors presented at the donor clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano between July and September 2018. A total of 90 blood samples were collected from voluntary and family replacement donors, aged between 18-57 years, the collected samples were screened for anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies using a rapid diagnostic kits and were also screened for the presence of anti-HCV and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. All of the total 90 (100%) donors screened were males. Family replacement and voluntary donors were of 76 (84.4%) and 14(15.6%) donors respectively. The overall seroprevalence of HCV and syphilis was 7.8% (5.6% and 2.2% for HCV and syphilis respectively using ELISA test). Prevalence of 1.3% was found for syphilis using a rapid diagnostic kit. Therefore critical screening of blood donors is of prime importance because they serve as an asymptomatic reservoir and a potential source of transmission of these infections.
Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, USA. 2006;2: 295-297.
Ayolabi CI, Taiwo MA, Omilabu SA, Adebisi AO, Fatoba OM. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Virus among blood donors in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5:1994-1996.
WHO. Status of blood safety in the WHO African Region: Report of the 2004 Survey WHO Regional Office for Africa. World Health Organization. Brazzaville. 2015;1–25.
WHO. WHO guidelines for the treatment of Treponema pallidum (syphilis). WHO Document production services, Geneva, Switzerland. 2016;1-25.
Kayser FH, Bienz KA, Eckert J, Zinkernagel RH. Medical microbiology, 10th Edition, Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, Germany. 2005;220-446.
Alexender IN, Olusaya A, Lanre S. Hepatitis C among blood donors at a teaching hospital in North Central Nigeria. 2014;13(1):20-23.
Bushra JA. Seroprevalence of Syphilis infection among blood donors at Thi-Qar Province. Journal of University Thi-Qar. 2014;9(2):1-5.
Kocak N, Hepgu S, Ozbayburtlu S, Altunay H, Ozsoy MF. Trends in major transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors over 17 years in Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of International Medical Research. 2004;32:671-675.
Usman W, Haroon K, Satti SH, Ansari MA, Malik MA, Zaheer HA. Prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors of a Teaching Hospital in Islamabad. Ann Pakist Med Sci. 2012;8(2): 236-239.
WHO. Screening donated blood for transfusion-transmissible infections: Recommendations. World Health Organization; 2009.
Elsharif BA, Muhammad MA, Hamza BH, Omer SM, Mutasim SM, Bader EH. Seroprevalence of viral transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors at Kosti Teaching Hospital. International Journal of Current Microbiological and Applied Sci. 2015;4(5): 1132-1138.
Muhammad Y, Bekele A. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga Blood Bank, Eastern Ethiopia: Retrospective 4 Years Study. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:129-135.
Umar M, Aliko AA, Idris S, Daniel OI, Adam AS, Salisu A, Abdulkarim IM, Danzarami D, Jobb DY. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and Listeriosis Co-infection among patients attending Sickbay Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 2016;1(1): 1-12.
Jakheng SPE, Umar M, Longkat KA, Oko JO, Ojeleye FS, Kigbu AA, Kutman NA, Ojo SA. Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum infection among cohorts of pregnant women attending a selected Hospital at Northern Nigeria. International STD Research & Reviews. 2019;8(1):1-9.
Blumberg BS. The discovery of Australian antigen and its relation to viral hepatitis. Vitro. 1971;7:223.
ODS. Ortho diagnostic systems, johnson & johnson. Ortho HCV Version 3.0 Elisa Test System directional literature included with each assay kit: Ortho document #631-20-161-1, Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Raritan (NJ); 1997.
Abdallah F, Mwanda OW, Rana F. Comparing walk-in and call-responsive donors in a national and a private hospital in Nairobi. East African Medical Journal. 2005;82(10):532-536.
Olokoba LB, Salahu FK, Danburam A, Delasu OO, Badung LH, Tidi SK, Abdulkarim A. Syphilis in voluntary blood donors in North-eastern Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009;31(3): 335-340.
Butsashvili M, Tsertsvadze T, McNutt LA, Kamkamidze G, Gvetadze R, Badridze N. Prevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, syphilis and HIV in Georgian Blood Donors. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2001;17:693-695.
Tessema B, Yismaw G, Kassu A, Amsalu A, Mulu FEU. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors at Gondar University Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Declining Trends over a Period of Five Years. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2010;10: 111.
Batina A, Katemba S, Malengela R. Infectious markers among blood donors in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Rev Med Brux. 2007;28:145-149.
Adjei AA, Kudzi W, Armah H, Adiku T. Prevalence of antibodies to syphilis among blood donors in Accra, Ghana. Jpn J. Infect. Dis. 2003;56: 165-167.
Matee MI, Lyamuya EF, Mbena EC, Magessa PM, Sufi J, Marwa GJ. Prevalence of transfusion-associated viral infections and syphilis among blood donor in Muhimbili Medical Center, DarEs Salaam, Tanzania. East African Medical Journal. 1999;76(3):167-171.
Tagny CT. Screening of syphilis in the Sub-Saharan African Blood Donor: Which Strategy? Transfusion Clin Biol. 2009;16: 448-453.
Mbanya DN, Takam D, Ndumde PM. Serological findings amongst first-time blood donors in Yaounde, Cameroon, is safe donation a reality or a myth? Transfusion Med. 2003;13:267-273.
Fasola FA, Fadimu PA, Akpan VO. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in a hospital based Blood Bank in Ibadan Nigeria, Clinical Medical Research. 2017;6(1):1-8.
Benson TA, Famoni PO, Ajala O, Akinlolaji TJ, Adeosun OC, Adghale A, Ibrahim HO. Prevalence of HBV, HCV and Syphilis among People of Ekiti in South-western Nigeria, International STD Research and Reviews. 2015;3(2):40-44.
Negi G, Gaur DS. Trends of transfusion transmissible diseases among blood donors at Uttarakhand, India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2014;39: 183-6.
Baithi FA, Ullah Z, Salamat N, Ayub M, Ghani E. Anti-hepatits B Core antigen testing, viral markers, and occult Hepatitis B virus Infection in Pakistani Blood Donors: Implications for Transfusion Practice. Transfusion. 2007;47:74-79.
Oner S, Yapici G, Sasmaz CT, Kurt AO, Bugdayci R. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, HIV, and VDRL seroprevalence of blood donors in mersin, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Medical Science. 2011;41:335-341.
Kilany M, Dajem SMM, Ibrahim YM, Alshehri A, Aljeamelani AA, Ibrahim EH. Seroprevalence of Anti-Treponema pallidum Antibodies (Syphilis) in blood donors in the Southern Area of Saudi Arabia Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2015;6(1):549-556.
Choet YH, Kim JB, Lee MG. Syphilis prevalence has rapidly decreased in South Korea. Sex Transmitted infections. 2003; 79:323-324.
Alao OO, Okwori EE, Araoye MO. The sero-prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among prospective blood donors in Makurdi, Nigeria. The international Journal of infectious Disease. 2010;8: 1256-1248.
Buseri FI, Muhibi MA, Jeremiah ZA. Sero-epidemiology of transfusion transmissible infectious diseases among blood donors in Oshogbo, South-West Nigeria. Blood Transfusion. 2009;7:293-9.
Odenigbo C, Oguejiofor C, Okonkwo U, Asamugha A, Ezeh T, Okocha E. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in blood donors in Nnewi, South East Nigeria: In association with blood groups. The International Journal of Gastroenterology. 2010;10(2):1-6.
Erhabor O, Ejele OA, Nwauche CA. The risk of Acquired Hepatitis C Virus Infection among blood donors in Port Harcourt: The question of blood safety in Nigeria. Niger. Journal of Clinical Practice. 2006;18-26.
Bala JA, Kawo AH, Muktar MD, Sarki A, Magaji W, Aliyu LA, Sani MA. Prevalence of hepatitis C infection among blood donors in some selected hospitals in Kano, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Microbiology. 2012;3:217-222.
Amiwero C, Prescott RJ, Okuku AG. Seroprevalence transfusion transmissible infections in blood donors attending the Federal Medical Center, Bida. Int. J Mod Biol Res. 2013;1:1-7.
Bihl F, Castelli D, Marincola F, Dodd RY, Brander C. Transfusion – transmitted infections. J Transl Med. 2007;5:25.
Fathi AA, Rashed BA. Prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV-1, 2 Infections among Blood Donors in Prince Hospital in North Region of Jordan. Int J Biol Med Res. 2011;2(4): 912–916.
Mehdi SR, Pophali A, Al-Abdulrahim KA. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C among blood donors. Saudi Medical Journal. 2000;21:942-944.
Uthman BM, Monem FS. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug abusers and prostitutes in Damascus, Syria. Saudi Medical Journal. 2002;23:393-395.
Gurol E. Trends in hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus among blood donors over 16 Years in Turkey. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2006;21:299–305.
Dapus OD, Piwuna TO, Joseph DE, Ogbenna AA, Kut SD, Chetle LD. Hepatitis C virus antibody among blood donors: The experience in a Nigerian Blood Transfusion Service Centre. Global Advanced Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2013;2(5):108- 113.